PUZZLaTOMictM Part 1

Einstein and De Broglie Energy Seti Alert An Open Universe Time Relativity and Symmetry

**Relativity Stuff**

Consider the following interstellar voyage: An astronaut called A leaves the vicinity of Earth to travel to Farth a planet just like Earth but 100,000 light years away. It has days and years identical to Earth. In a very short time his velocity reaches about 99.999 percent the speed of light. Within a day or two he arrives at Farth. On his way he looks back at the Earth and sees it moving very slowly almost frozen. Looking ahead he sees Farth rotating about its star at over 40,000 years per day! It appears to be moving at roughly 10,000,000,000 miles per second or about 500,000 times faster than light speed. This is true since only a day or two of his times passes while over 100,000 years, the time it takes light and his ship to get to there passes on Farth. Actually Farth orbits at over 80,000 years per day. When A leaves Earth he has to travel through light that has been streaming toward Earth for 100,000 years. He has to travel past all this light as well as 100,000 more years of light that is just starting to stream toward Earth from Farth when A leaves Earth. The head end of this light just reaches Earth when A reaches Farth. Therefore 100,000 more Farth years must be in the signals that A must pass thru before A reaches Farth. The reason according to Relativity is that even at the speed of light 100,000 years must pass before a light signal can reach Farth from Earth or Earth from Farth.

Consider the idea that you go backward in time if you travel faster than light speed. A traveler takes off from Earth and travels to Farth via space warp. Then he travels back to Earth. His space warp is very powerful so his trip happens almost instantaneously. In that case nothing can possibly change since he left and came back before any time passed on Earth. For him to go back in time would require his biological functions to reverse and that just does not happen since it is a space warp. Now consider that it is not a space warp but instead just some new way of faster than light travel. Would things be any different? If non locality is really true I believe nothing would be different. There would be no reversal of time.

He would catch up with images of himself that left the Earth long ago as he was growing up and would see himself getting younger. These images are just made of photons, they do not cause him to reverse in time. This part of Relativity that predicts time reversal at faster than light speed may have a basic flaw. Either that or time reversal represents a barrier, and as Einstein said nothing can travel faster than light speed (except entangled non local things of course!).

Note that A will see light from Farth striking his ship at extreme intensity. It will be so intense it will cause particles to boil off his ship and create tons of matter and new photons. The ship will appear to the rest of the universe as a huge long streak of very bright light. Perhaps new technology will have enabled the ship to slip through the light so the light never strikes the surface of the ship similar to what would happen in a moving space warp.

Since writing the above I have come accross a proposed experiment by the referenced individuals below and this appears to be identical to my idea of comparing entangled and non entangled groups to get 1's and 0's. I am way behind, it looks like. The only substantial difference I can see is that I would use a whole group of particles to get a statistical result for each pulse recieved instead of just a single particle but this is completely obvious as a technical improvement if it works for single pairs. Here is the reference and a quote from same for the proposed experiment. I do not know if the experiment was ever done or if it was successfull. Here is the link: http://faculty.washington.edu/jcramer/Nonlocal_2007.pdf

A Test of Quantum Nonlocal Communication J.G. Cramer, Warren G. Nagourney,
and Skander Mzali

UW CENPA Annual Report 2006-2007 Final April 22, 2007

"Effectively, by changing the switch one is forcing the VLP entangled
photons to behave

like particles when which-way information is provided and to behave like
waves when it is

not. The interference or diffraction patterns observed in the other arm of
the experiment

by the camera for the HLP photons depend on whether this photon is
nonlocally forced into

the same particle-like or wave-like behavior by the measurements performed
on its entangled

twin. The nonlocal connection would then become communication."

Copyright 2013 © by Douglas A. Engel, Littleton, CO, U.S.A.

Einstein and De
Broglie Energy

Einstein's mass-energy equation is E = mc^2,

where E is energy, m is mass and c is the velocity of light.

De Broglie's wave-momentum equation is l = h/p,

Where l is wave length, h is Planck's constant and p is momentum.

We can multiply these two equations together as follows:

El = hmc^2/p.

Set p to maximum for its mass as mc.

Then El = hmc^2/mc, or El=
hc. This is quite understandable because energy increases rapidly as mass-energy
increases to its maximum possible and wavelength decreases as momentum increases
to maximum. We can now take the entire mass-energy of the universe times its
wavelength and get Planck's constant as follows:

Eul = hc, Where Eu is the mass energy of the entire
universe and l is its wavelength.

Notice that on the left side the Eu is enormous while l is very small, while on
the right side Planck's constant and c seem to be happy always staying the same. An
attempt to relate this to twist would say that l is
hc divided by total twist, and Eu is total twist. Notice that it does not matter
how big or small Eu is since l will decrease or
increase in perfect inverse proportion according to the equation
l= h/p.

Since De Broglie came up with his equation more complicated relativistic
equations for it have been derived, but when we average mass-energy over the
entire universe the simpler version use here suffices.

A gravitational speculation:

We might speculate that as l gets smaller it causes
gravitation. A smaller wavelength would attract matter if the waves were
generated in a field like manner around a massive body. For instance the waves
would be more intense closer to the body. At the center of the Earth gravity
would be zero since the wave intensity would be the same in all directions. This
would fit well with the idea of space curvature since wave intensity would not
change for given mass as you get farther away from it, only the intensity of
waves. Shorter waves and more intensity would generate more curvature. Gravity
would then not be an exchange of gravitons but a separate kind of force
generated simply by mass alone and the momentum waves radiated by the mass. I
have not worked out equations for this, but probably someone, somewhere already
has. One could speculate that the Higgs Boson is a particle of the gravitational
l field sort of like the photon is a particle of the electromagnetic field. The
difference being that Higgs particles are more a result of the l field rather
than purely generators of the field and gravitons would be unnecessary though
still useful for the general calculation procedures of quantum mechanics.

Copyright 2014 © by Douglas A. Engel, Littleton, CO, U.S.A.

__Einstiens theory of relativity__ says that any material
object cannot travel faster than light. It says nothing about signals that do
not transfer material(energy) back and forth. Since quantum theory using Bell's
inequality allows non local disturbances when quanta are entangled, might we
have a way to communicate at faster than light speed without any transference of
material or energy? Instead we just detect entanglement or non entanglement.
Perhaps this does not violate any part of relativity when only communication is
involved, not faster that light travel by material particles. Think of tapping a
rod that is 10 miles long but has zero mass and is 100 percent stiff. The taps
would be felt instantly at the other end but no material could be transferred
since the rod is mass-less. Of course such a rod has never been seen but it is
not a violation of physical principles. It would have to be made of some kind of
crystallized space. The closest thing we have to it is aerogel. The
communication method with non locality proposed here is not unlike how Quantum
computers use non locality in league with the power of statistics. To really
face the facts proven non locality completely violates a postulate of
Relativity!!

Quantum theorists might be inclined to give this a chance. For instance could it be seen as a kind of quantum computer where you do not expect increased speed of calculation but you do expect increased speed of signaling.

Copyright 2013 © by Douglas A. Engel, Littleton, CO, U.S.A.

The 4 laws of thermodynamics are formulated around the idea of a closed or
limited system. For instance the idea that entropy always increases is usually
illustrated by the example of a box with cold gas on one side and hot gas on the
other side. After a short time the temperature in the box equalizes as the gases
mix together. The idea is that a balance must always exist between energy input
and energy output and entropy must increase or disorder must increase to extract
useful work.

These ideas are thought to work exactly the same for the entire universe. But
what if the universe is actually an open system? Here I mean a truly open system
where energy balance is not a rule on large and very large scales. For instance
kinetic energy is Ek=1/2mv^2.

When two systems get moving apart so fast that light signals no longer can pass
between them then there is no reason to believe that the space-time location and
physical properties of the two systems stay in sync. Later on the two systems
may come closer together so that signals can pass between them again. At that
juncture the two systems can randomly have changed with respect to each other.
For instance one may have aged more rapidly and acquired more mass and changed
location in space in a random way with respect to the other one. Each system
will see the other one as having undergone random changes like this. Only when
they become observational to each other again do they sync up as belonging to a
part of the same universe. This could be called the theory of plastivity. It
would allow the universe to grow or shrink and would posit that we live in a
kind of sub universe dictated by how far we can see in it. This is similar to
some of the properties of quantum theory where a particle can do a random dance
when no one is watching it, but suddenly has position and momentum when it is
observed. In like manner a macro sized object going out of light signal range
can be randomly changing in unknown ways and then coming back into range
suddenly settles down to a new position where it is observed to be with new
properties that are stable but changed in small random ways from when it left
our vision. There is no way to pin down what a thing is doing when it no longer
is part of our physical sub universe. The random changes need not be large to
have long term effects. The effects would build up over time resulting in great
changes that could be explained in no other way.

Thus this would cause the universe to exhibit properties of an open system.
Things could change on a large scale in random ways over time. The idea might
explain why the universe seems connected with tentacles of dark matter. These
could be paths where signaling is being reestablished and connecting space time
together on very large scales. The effect could work on galactic intergalactic
scales as quantum particles continuously lose and reestablish signaling with
other particles, undergoing random open system changes that slowly build up and
create a complicated self organizing system on galactic and much larger scales.

Might we view quantum uncertainty in a similar light. Particles would never
fully 'know' all attributes of other nearby particles as their waves entangle.
There would a constant on/off reestablishing of contact thus giving an accurate
average over time but never accurate only probable when an individual particle
is observed.

Is the universe actually governed by a higher space as string theorists posit?
For instance they believe we live in a lower dimension brane world nearby other
similar lower dimension brane universes while the overall space is of a higher
dimension and is called the bulk. Since the bulk contains the multi-verse we
could say that it must synchronize all the individual universes in a kind of
overall space-time. If there is no bulk then two universes would have no meaning
to each other and they could never establish contact with each other since no
over all connection between them exists in the first place. In fact we could say
that two such disconnected universes cannot even be mentioned since it would
have no connective meaning at all. Mathematically this would be similar to two
sets with no common elements. Yet we can talk meaningfully about both sets.
Similarly we could talk about disconnected universes and ask questions about
them such as could they ever become connected in any way? It is hard to see how
they could since without some connection in the first place there is no where to
begin to look for a connection. And if a way of connecting them is found then
they must both have always been connected by some higher space or space-time or
perhaps even a kind of controlling entity like a God or control that views both
universes in some kind of eternal view port controlling device.

This reminds me of the idea that information supposedly can never be destroyed.
Yet far parts of the universe are disappearing from view as the universe
expands. Is that information being destroyed? It can no longer affect our
location how can it still be considered to exist? The mass, energy, and
everything about it simply disappears. We can try to extrapolate about what it
looks like at some later time but can never sure if our simulations are
accurate. Here is another paradox about information. If some information is
truly lost how could you ever prove it? The definition of information is that it
is information. When lost you could never it was ever there in the past since it
has been lost and no possible trace of it can be left here in the present to
prove it ever existed in the first place. And, symmetrically, new information
cannot be proven to have not been around before if it suddenly appears. Once it
appears it must have a complete historical trace like all other information,
thus information could arise and disappear without anyone ever noticing. All we
could prove is that information can never be lost as long as it is not about far
parts of the universe.

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Since thermodynamics, energy and entropy can be equated with information then we
must accept that mass and energy can disappear and arise without us noticing
these changes in any way. In summary since nothing changes in our physical laws
this whole thesis has no reproducible effects even if it were true. It is sort
of like the idea that everything suddenly doubled in size. Since there is
nothing to compare this to it has zero effect.

Conservation laws in an open or infinite universe can be compared to the
mathematics of infinity. Infinity plus any finite number is still the same
infinite number. Substitute a finite mass-energy for a finite number and the
universe is unaffected. The large scale universe is unchanged by small or even
fairly large but finite slow or sudden additions or subtractions of mass-energy.
In this sense conservation laws in an open universe seem only to apply to small
volumes of space where connectedness is prominent.

Time, Relativity and Symmetry

page 1 4-2014

The Sam brothers, Sn.

Sam0 lives at the center of the universe and is in a permanent state of bliss as
the universe buzz's around him. He stays put at one point never moving and loves
to be ignored as much as possible. He can be likened to a point or a zero with a
single position that can never quite be located no matter how hard you try. He
does not recognize the passage of time and all is permanent and wonderfull bliss
and he likes to keep it that way forever since he loves zero land.

Sam1 lives on a line. Sam1 could possibly move on the line but since he would
never know exactly where he was on the line he does not bother to move. He just
stays put at one spot on the line. However he has another brother somewhere on
the line called Sam1,t where t represents time. Sam1,t can move along the line
all he wants since he seems to know where he is when he moves. Other than that
he can't do much. Sam 1,t has a ditiometer, also known as a space time odometer.
When he moves along the line the ditiometer records the distance moved and the
time it took to move that distance. Sometimes Sam1,t puts the ditiometer in
hypermode so that it also records directions moved, accelerations, and
velocities. He seldom uses this mode as it uses up so much energy to record so
much information.

There are more Sam brothers, each with different properties. You could call them
Samn,t where n is the number of dimensions they live in and t the time dimension
for that Sam. Sam2,t lives in 2 dimensions and his ditiometer records the
distance he moves and how long it took. None of the Sams like to use hypermode
on their ditiometers but they certainly can if they need to.

Sam3,t is an astronaut, Sam for short. He lives in an ordinary universe with 3D
of space and 1D of time. One day he decides to take a quick trip to Farth a
planet 100 light years from Earth. His ship is powerfull and can make it there
in 4 days flat. Sam has been genetically modified to withstand the great
acceleration forces. When he arrives his ditiometer registers 100 light years
distance and 4 days time. However when he accelerated and got close to the speed
of light Farth looked much closer, actually only about 4 light days away. Sam
has the problem of deciding to record his distance as 4 light days or 100 light
years. Certainly his ship did seem to endure a long trip as its skin has aged
from radiation blasting and severe vibration during accelerations. Sam3,t
realizes that Einstien's relativity predicts that distances do decrease as speed
increases. However Sam wants to be able to claim the larger distance as a
business expense so he uses the ditiometer readings of 100 light years distance
and 4 days travel time. The ditiometer might have backed this up, perhaps
because as it sensed acceleration it greatly increased its distance per time
calculations to match. It is all a mystery. How can getting near the speed of
light compress both time and distance? You would think relativity would be happy
compressing just one of these variables. He reasons that this is perhaps because
the ditiometer already has Farth in its aps(astro positioning sysystem) If that
is the case the ditiometer used the pre accelleration distance between Earth and
Farth to calculate distance travelled. This makes good sense since Earth and
Farth have very little relative motion with respect to each other. Therefore the
rate of time passage on each planet must be almost in synch. Therefore people on
both planets would calculate their relative distance as 100 light years. It is
necessary to specify the destination to the ditiometer before the trip so the
ditiometer must immediately store the known distance as 100 light years. After
all it seems much more convenient to use classical values whenever possible
because it is the more standard and common use. Of course when Sam gets back to
Earth all his immediate family and relatives will have passed on but he could
have many descendents that he is related to and his 401k may have greatly
increased in value if they still have 401k's.

but only accelerated enough to become relatively stationary with respect to
Earth and Farth. Now Sam got really confused. He reasoned that since they were
both in constant velocity mode side by

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When Sam3,t left Earth another astronaut Nel3,t, Nel for short, took off in her
own ship. She was to test some of the predictions of relativity. When the two
ships got near to speed of light they were both coasting side by side a few
thousand miles from Earth when Nel started heading back to Earth

side then time for Nel was passing at the same rate as time for Sam. Nothing
wrong with that. However when she accelerated backwards to make her velocity
similar to Earth and Farth her rate of time passage must have decreased relative
to Sam, yet time on Earth and on Farth was still passing much quicker and Nel's
motion was in synch with Earth and Farth. How can that be? Shouldn't her time be
passing at the same rate as on Earth and Farth? Relativity tells us that her
time must be moving slower since she is the only one accelerating with respect
to Sam when she changed direction. What is the final aswer to this conundrum?

The answer might be available in analyzing the ditiometer. It registers motion
in the four dimensions of space time. When Nel reversed direction and
accelerated away from Sam her ditiometer saw a vector change of motion and
knowing the previous vector acceleration it began to calculate an increase in
the passage of time and distance. This would continue until Nel got to Earth
synched motion. If acceleration would have continued instead of stopping the
clock would then start slowing down. Makes sense. This makes even more sense
when you think about how Sam's clock would work when he gets to Farth. He would
have to decelerate to stop at Farth just in the same amount as Nel had to
decelerate to match Earth synch. Then when returning to Earth he would have to
accelerate towards Earth, in the same direction of the force of deceleration he
used to stop at Farth. Thus there is a simple symmetry when Sam and Nel view
things from the way the ditiometer works and thus relativity appears perfectly
non relative in 4D.

Sam and Nel now realize that popular books that protray relativity as total
realtivity are wrong. These books often state that motion is totally relative
and it does not matter if it was Earth and Farth that accelerated or Sam and Nel
that accelerated. But if Earth and Farth had accelerated and decelerated it
would have been their time that slowed and Sam and Nel that quickly aged. So
obviously it really does matter who does the relative acceleration. Earth sees
the ships as moving quickly and their time as passing slowly. Sam heading toward
Farth would see the Earth begin to orbit the sun very slowly and Farth orbiting
very rapidly. Earth would seem to get much farther away and orbit very slowly as
Sam approached the speed of light while Farth would seem to get very close very
quickly as space compresses in Sam's direction of motion. This makes sense
because Sam must measure the speed of light coming from Earth as a constant so
if Earth stretches farther away light has farther to go and the Doppler shift
means light coming from Earth would hit Sam greatly stretched out. So Sam gets
the same value for light speed. For instance if a photon before acceleration
took 10 units of time to go 100 units of distance then after acceleration it now
takes 100 units of time to go 1000 units of distance and the speed comes out the
same. A similar result holds for space and time compression looking toward
Farth.

More About Ditiometers

The odometer of an Auto generally just records distance. A piece of equipment
like a bulldozer generally records hours instead of distance. This is because it
may not move much but does a lot of work when running so hours is a much better
rocord of wear and tear. For a car hours are not as usefull since a car is used
mainly to get from point A to point B. In fact wear and tear on a car might be
more accurately recorded as hours but hours tells little about business use and
so forth. A Ditiometer that records accelerations and vector changes and angular
accelerations might be a great improvement on realizing maintenance on a car. It
could also record uphill and downhill motion and road bumps suffered. This
information could then be used by the ditiometer to compute closely the

Page 3

Illustrating relativity by saying it does not matter if it was the object that
accelerated or the entire universe that accelerated takes relativity too far. It
seems to throw out the baby with the bath water in trying to emphasize the
relativeness of relativty. For one thing you could never do this so it might be
OK as a thought experiment but not as a real illustration of facts. Even
Einstien tended to work with thought experiments in the realm of the eventually
doable as an experiment.

It would take a large and unknown amount of energy to accelerate the entire
universe. The amount of energy would be so great as to perhaps collapse the
universe very quickly since the increase in energy would increase gravity as
Energy is equivalent to mass.

Other illutrations say it does not matter if it was you or I that accelerated,
the relativity math is the same. But if that is true than how do you account for
the different aging of the travelling astronaut over the stay at home brother?
Still other illustrations say that relative motion is totally relative when in
fact that is never the case.

Here is another way some books confuse the issue. They state that a particle
created by a cosmic ray can take longer to decay due to its relativistic speed
so that it appears to observers on Earth that its mass is greater by some
amount. They then state that it does not matter if you view the particle as
moving fast or the laboratory as moving fast torward the particle, this being
due to the symmetry of relativity. This can't be true for several reasons. For
instance relativity states that time should pass slower for the fast moving
particle than for the Laboratory. This has to be true since it was the cosmic
ray that got accelrated to near light speed not the Earth. Also similar
particles produced in the lab and moving at a slower speed decay faster. The
particle should also not see the laboratory as having increased mass since time
for the laboratory passes faster. When you invoke the equivalence between
gravity and mass you can not get the same result if you neglect which item got
initially accelerated. The perfect symmetry that writers constantly emphasize is
not true. This is a holdover from Special Relativity theory which did not
include acceleration and may not even be true for Special Relativity.

Writers also always emphasize that different observers will see distant events
as occurring in a different order due to their relative positions in space. Once
again confusion results because relativity gave us a way to calculate which
event occured first at least in most instances this has to be true or the GPS
system could not work. Any observer will be able to calculate in what order some
distant observer has seen the same two distant events assuming they know the
distances to the events and to the other observer. A way to determine such
distances might be possible in the future. I could imagine a rotating pinhole
parallax device that builds up a statistical lineup of photons to give an
accurate distance. Astronomers calculate event orders but they have the
advantage of great distances that register a red shift and they generally have
no need to order astronomical events for most purposes of their work. When they
do they generally are able to make a logical estimate of orders of events based
on causality and several other effects.

Another confusion left over from early relativity is the idea that an observer
can have no knowledge of place and motion in the universe. However modern
quantum theory has more or less given us a new ether known as vacuum energy or
virtual quantum activity. If this activity could be probed even by the tiniest
amount we could possibly determine its relative velocity. In addition we now
have the cosmic background radiation or CMB. An instrument that determines red
shifts coming from opposite directions could easily produce a velocity with
repect to the CMB, thought to be symmetrical around any given observer if the
observer had zero velocity with respect to the CMB and hence to the large space
environment surrounding their position. Thus a space traveler would have means
to know or determine their absolute velocity in a very practical, useful manner
given an instrument on board that can do this. Thus an accurate ditiometer is a
real possibility.