PUZZLaTOMictM   Part 1

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Einstein and De Broglie Energy    Seti Alert  An Open Universe  Time Relativity and Symmetry

Relativity Stuff

Consider the following interstellar voyage:  An astronaut called A leaves the vicinity of Earth to travel to Farth a planet just like Earth but 100,000 light years away.  It has days and years identical to Earth.  In a very short time his velocity reaches about 99.999 percent the speed of light.  Within a day or two he arrives at Farth.  On his way he looks back at the Earth and sees it moving very slowly almost frozen.  Looking ahead he sees Farth rotating about its star at over 40,000 years per day!  It appears to be moving at roughly 10,000,000,000 miles per second or about 500,000 times faster than light speed.  This is true since only a day or two of his times passes while over 100,000 years, the time it takes light and his ship to get to there passes on Farth.  Actually Farth orbits at over 80,000 years per day.  When A leaves Earth he has to travel through light that has been streaming toward Earth for 100,000 years.  He has to travel past all this light as well as 100,000 more years of light that is just starting to stream toward Earth from Farth when A leaves Earth.  The head end of this light just reaches Earth when A reaches Farth.  Therefore 100,000 more Farth years must be in the signals that A must pass thru before A reaches Farth.  The reason according to Relativity is that even at the speed of light 100,000 years must pass before a light signal can reach Farth from Earth or Earth from Farth.

Consider the idea that you go backward in time if you travel faster than light speed.  A traveler takes off from Earth and travels to Farth via space warp. Then he travels back to Earth.  His space warp is very powerful so his trip happens almost instantaneously.  In that case nothing can possibly change since he left and came back before any time passed on Earth.  For him to go back in time would require his biological functions to reverse and that just does not happen since it is a space warp.  Now consider that it is not a space warp but instead just some new way of faster than light travel.  Would things be any different?  If non locality is really true I believe nothing would be different.  There would be no reversal of time.

He would catch up with images of himself that left the Earth long ago as he was growing up and would see himself getting younger.  These images are just made of photons, they do not cause him to reverse in time.  This part of Relativity that predicts time reversal at faster than light speed may have a basic flaw.  Either that or time reversal represents a barrier, and as Einstein said nothing can travel faster than light speed (except entangled non local things of course!). 

Note that A will see light from Farth striking his ship at extreme intensity.  It will be so intense it will cause particles to boil off his ship and create tons of matter and new photons.  The ship will appear to the rest of the universe as a huge long streak of very bright light.  Perhaps new technology will have enabled the ship to slip through the light so the light never strikes the surface of the ship similar to what would happen in a moving space warp.

Since writing the above I have come accross a proposed experiment by the referenced individuals below and this appears to be identical to my idea of comparing entangled and non entangled groups to get 1's and 0's.  I am way behind, it looks like.  The only substantial difference I can see is that I would use a whole group of particles to get a statistical result for each pulse recieved instead of just a single particle but this is completely obvious as a technical improvement if it works for single pairs.  Here is the reference and a quote from same for the proposed experiment.  I do not know if the experiment was ever done or if it was successfull.  Here is the link: http://faculty.washington.edu/jcramer/Nonlocal_2007.pdf

A Test of Quantum Nonlocal Communication J.G. Cramer, Warren G. Nagourney, and Skander Mzali

UW CENPA Annual Report 2006-2007 Final April 22, 2007

"Effectively, by changing the switch one is forcing the VLP entangled photons to behave
like particles when which-way information is provided and to behave like waves when it is
not. The interference or diffraction patterns observed in the other arm of the experiment
by the camera for the HLP photons depend on whether this photon is nonlocally forced into
the same particle-like or wave-like behavior by the measurements performed on its entangled
twin. The nonlocal connection would then become communication."

Copyright 2013 by Douglas A. Engel, Littleton, CO, U.S.A.
 

Einstein and De Broglie Energy

Einstein's mass-energy equation is E = mc^2,
where E is energy, m is mass and c is the velocity of light.
De Broglie's wave-momentum equation is l = h/p,
Where l is wave length, h is Planck's constant and p is momentum.

We can multiply these two equations together as follows:
El = hmc^2/p.
Set p to maximum for its mass as mc.
Then El = hmc^2/mc, or El= hc. This is quite understandable because energy increases rapidly as mass-energy increases to its maximum possible and wavelength decreases as momentum increases to maximum. We can now take the entire mass-energy of the universe times its wavelength and get Planck's constant as follows:

Eul = hc, Where Eu is the mass energy of the entire universe and l is its wavelength.

Notice that on the left side the Eu is enormous while l is very small, while on the right side Planck's constant and c seem to be happy always staying the same. An attempt to relate this to twist would say that l is hc divided by total twist, and Eu is total twist. Notice that it does not matter how big or small Eu is since l will decrease or increase in perfect inverse proportion according to the equation l= h/p.

Since De Broglie came up with his equation more complicated relativistic equations for it have been derived, but when we average mass-energy over the entire universe the simpler version use here suffices.

A gravitational speculation:

We might speculate that as l gets smaller it causes gravitation. A smaller wavelength would attract matter if the waves were generated in a field like manner around a massive body. For instance the waves would be more intense closer to the body. At the center of the Earth gravity would be zero since the wave intensity would be the same in all directions. This would fit well with the idea of space curvature since wave intensity would not change for given mass as you get farther away from it, only the intensity of waves. Shorter waves and more intensity would generate more curvature. Gravity would then not be an exchange of gravitons but a separate kind of force generated simply by mass alone and the momentum waves radiated by the mass. I have not worked out equations for this, but probably someone, somewhere already has. One could speculate that the Higgs Boson is a particle of the gravitational l field sort of like the photon is a particle of the electromagnetic field. The difference being that Higgs particles are more a result of the l field rather than purely generators of the field and gravitons would be unnecessary though still useful for the general calculation procedures of quantum mechanics.

Copyright 2014 by Douglas A. Engel, Littleton, CO, U.S.A.

Seti Alert

Einstiens theory of relativity says that any material object cannot travel faster than light. It says nothing about signals that do not transfer material(energy) back and forth. Since quantum theory using Bell's inequality allows non local disturbances when quanta are entangled, might we have a way to communicate at faster than light speed without any transference of material or energy? Instead we just detect entanglement or non entanglement. Perhaps this does not violate any part of relativity when only communication is involved, not faster that light travel by material particles. Think of tapping a rod that is 10 miles long but has zero mass and is 100 percent stiff. The taps would be felt instantly at the other end but no material could be transferred since the rod is mass-less. Of course such a rod has never been seen but it is not a violation of physical principles. It would have to be made of some kind of crystallized space. The closest thing we have to it is aerogel. The communication method with non locality proposed here is not unlike how Quantum computers use non locality in league with the power of statistics. To really face the facts proven non locality completely violates a postulate of Relativity!!

Faster than light communication already exists in some experimental quantum computers. A QC can solve problems in a few seconds that would take a linear computer thousands of years. Small QC's already exist and scaled up QC's are already planned. Since a QC can solve in a non local manner it must be internally communicating with itself at faster than light speed and since it spits the final result out it appears humans are effecting communication at faster than light speed. The only problem or perceived flaw is that no can say for sure how the QC is able to do this, only that quantum theory permits it. It may result in mathematical proofs without some of the detailed mathematics that would normally be required.

Alien civilizations using this method would explain why alien signals are never detected. When traveling to an exo-planet the central communicators would be deployed at the halfway point of the journey or would always trail at a midpoint distance. One could even imagine civilizations setting up their locations based on geometries of planets existing on lines at midway points so that the entire grouping is like a an exercise in a beautiful star geometry.

Pros and Cons. Can this work? Every relativist will say no way. You can not know anything about the entanglement until you compare results thus you are back to speed of light.
Quantum theorists might be inclined to give this a chance. For instance could it be seen as a kind of quantum computer where you do not expect increased speed of calculation but you do expect increased speed of signaling.
Copyright 2013 by Douglas A. Engel, Littleton, CO, U.S.A.

An Open Universe

The 4 laws of thermodynamics are formulated around the idea of a closed or limited system. For instance the idea that entropy always increases is usually illustrated by the example of a box with cold gas on one side and hot gas on the other side. After a short time the temperature in the box equalizes as the gases mix together. The idea is that a balance must always exist between energy input and energy output and entropy must increase or disorder must increase to extract useful work.

These ideas are thought to work exactly the same for the entire universe. But what if the universe is actually an open system? Here I mean a truly open system where energy balance is not a rule on large and very large scales. For instance kinetic energy is Ek=1/2mv^2.

When two systems get moving apart so fast that light signals no longer can pass between them then there is no reason to believe that the space-time location and physical properties of the two systems stay in sync. Later on the two systems may come closer together so that signals can pass between them again. At that juncture the two systems can randomly have changed with respect to each other. For instance one may have aged more rapidly and acquired more mass and changed location in space in a random way with respect to the other one. Each system will see the other one as having undergone random changes like this. Only when they become observational to each other again do they sync up as belonging to a part of the same universe. This could be called the theory of plastivity. It would allow the universe to grow or shrink and would posit that we live in a kind of sub universe dictated by how far we can see in it. This is similar to some of the properties of quantum theory where a particle can do a random dance when no one is watching it, but suddenly has position and momentum when it is observed. In like manner a macro sized object going out of light signal range can be randomly changing in unknown ways and then coming back into range suddenly settles down to a new position where it is observed to be with new properties that are stable but changed in small random ways from when it left our vision. There is no way to pin down what a thing is doing when it no longer is part of our physical sub universe. The random changes need not be large to have long term effects. The effects would build up over time resulting in great changes that could be explained in no other way.

Thus this would cause the universe to exhibit properties of an open system. Things could change on a large scale in random ways over time. The idea might explain why the universe seems connected with tentacles of dark matter. These could be paths where signaling is being reestablished and connecting space time together on very large scales. The effect could work on galactic intergalactic scales as quantum particles continuously lose and reestablish signaling with other particles, undergoing random open system changes that slowly build up and create a complicated self organizing system on galactic and much larger scales.

Might we view quantum uncertainty in a similar light. Particles would never fully 'know' all attributes of other nearby particles as their waves entangle. There would a constant on/off reestablishing of contact thus giving an accurate average over time but never accurate only probable when an individual particle is observed.

Is the universe actually governed by a higher space as string theorists posit? For instance they believe we live in a lower dimension brane world nearby other similar lower dimension brane universes while the overall space is of a higher dimension and is called the bulk. Since the bulk contains the multi-verse we could say that it must synchronize all the individual universes in a kind of overall space-time. If there is no bulk then two universes would have no meaning to each other and they could never establish contact with each other since no over all connection between them exists in the first place. In fact we could say that two such disconnected universes cannot even be mentioned since it would have no connective meaning at all. Mathematically this would be similar to two sets with no common elements. Yet we can talk meaningfully about both sets. Similarly we could talk about disconnected universes and ask questions about them such as could they ever become connected in any way? It is hard to see how they could since without some connection in the first place there is no where to begin to look for a connection. And if a way of connecting them is found then they must both have always been connected by some higher space or space-time or perhaps even a kind of controlling entity like a God or control that views both universes in some kind of eternal view port controlling device.

This reminds me of the idea that information supposedly can never be destroyed. Yet far parts of the universe are disappearing from view as the universe expands. Is that information being destroyed? It can no longer affect our location how can it still be considered to exist? The mass, energy, and everything about it simply disappears. We can try to extrapolate about what it looks like at some later time but can never sure if our simulations are accurate. Here is another paradox about information. If some information is truly lost how could you ever prove it? The definition of information is that it is information. When lost you could never it was ever there in the past since it has been lost and no possible trace of it can be left here in the present to prove it ever existed in the first place. And, symmetrically, new information cannot be proven to have not been around before if it suddenly appears. Once it appears it must have a complete historical trace like all other information, thus information could arise and disappear without anyone ever noticing. All we could prove is that information can never be lost as long as it is not about far parts of the universe.

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Since thermodynamics, energy and entropy can be equated with information then we must accept that mass and energy can disappear and arise without us noticing these changes in any way. In summary since nothing changes in our physical laws this whole thesis has no reproducible effects even if it were true. It is sort of like the idea that everything suddenly doubled in size. Since there is nothing to compare this to it has zero effect.

Conservation laws in an open or infinite universe can be compared to the mathematics of infinity. Infinity plus any finite number is still the same infinite number. Substitute a finite mass-energy for a finite number and the universe is unaffected. The large scale universe is unchanged by small or even fairly large but finite slow or sudden additions or subtractions of mass-energy.  In this sense conservation laws in an open universe seem only to apply to small volumes of space where connectedness is prominent.

Time, Relativity and Symmetry

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The Sam brothers, Sn.

Sam0 lives at the center of the universe and is in a permanent state of bliss as the universe buzz's around him. He stays put at one point never moving and loves to be ignored as much as possible. He can be likened to a point or a zero with a single position that can never quite be located no matter how hard you try. He does not recognize the passage of time and all is permanent and wonderfull bliss and he likes to keep it that way forever since he loves zero land.

Sam1 lives on a line. Sam1 could possibly move on the line but since he would never know exactly where he was on the line he does not bother to move. He just stays put at one spot on the line. However he has another brother somewhere on the line called Sam1,t where t represents time. Sam1,t can move along the line all he wants since he seems to know where he is when he moves. Other than that he can't do much. Sam 1,t has a ditiometer, also known as a space time odometer. When he moves along the line the ditiometer records the distance moved and the time it took to move that distance. Sometimes Sam1,t puts the ditiometer in hypermode so that it also records directions moved, accelerations, and velocities. He seldom uses this mode as it uses up so much energy to record so much information.

There are more Sam brothers, each with different properties. You could call them Samn,t where n is the number of dimensions they live in and t the time dimension for that Sam. Sam2,t lives in 2 dimensions and his ditiometer records the distance he moves and how long it took. None of the Sams like to use hypermode on their ditiometers but they certainly can if they need to.

Sam3,t is an astronaut, Sam for short. He lives in an ordinary universe with 3D of space and 1D of time. One day he decides to take a quick trip to Farth a planet 100 light years from Earth. His ship is powerfull and can make it there in 4 days flat. Sam has been genetically modified to withstand the great acceleration forces. When he arrives his ditiometer registers 100 light years distance and 4 days time. However when he accelerated and got close to the speed of light Farth looked much closer, actually only about 4 light days away. Sam has the problem of deciding to record his distance as 4 light days or 100 light years. Certainly his ship did seem to endure a long trip as its skin has aged from radiation blasting and severe vibration during accelerations. Sam3,t realizes that Einstien's relativity predicts that distances do decrease as speed increases. However Sam wants to be able to claim the larger distance as a business expense so he uses the ditiometer readings of 100 light years distance and 4 days travel time. The ditiometer might have backed this up, perhaps because as it sensed acceleration it greatly increased its distance per time calculations to match. It is all a mystery. How can getting near the speed of light compress both time and distance? You would think relativity would be happy compressing just one of these variables. He reasons that this is perhaps because the ditiometer already has Farth in its aps(astro positioning sysystem) If that is the case the ditiometer used the pre accelleration distance between Earth and Farth to calculate distance travelled. This makes good sense since Earth and Farth have very little relative motion with respect to each other. Therefore the rate of time passage on each planet must be almost in synch. Therefore people on both planets would calculate their relative distance as 100 light years. It is necessary to specify the destination to the ditiometer before the trip so the ditiometer must immediately store the known distance as 100 light years. After all it seems much more convenient to use classical values whenever possible because it is the more standard and common use. Of course when Sam gets back to Earth all his immediate family and relatives will have passed on but he could have many descendents that he is related to and his 401k may have greatly increased in value if they still have 401k's.
but only accelerated enough to become relatively stationary with respect to Earth and Farth. Now Sam got really confused. He reasoned that since they were both in constant velocity mode side by

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When Sam3,t left Earth another astronaut Nel3,t, Nel for short, took off in her own ship. She was to test some of the predictions of relativity. When the two ships got near to speed of light they were both coasting side by side a few thousand miles from Earth when Nel started heading back to Earth

side then time for Nel was passing at the same rate as time for Sam. Nothing wrong with that. However when she accelerated backwards to make her velocity similar to Earth and Farth her rate of time passage must have decreased relative to Sam, yet time on Earth and on Farth was still passing much quicker and Nel's motion was in synch with Earth and Farth. How can that be? Shouldn't her time be passing at the same rate as on Earth and Farth? Relativity tells us that her time must be moving slower since she is the only one accelerating with respect to Sam when she changed direction. What is the final aswer to this conundrum?

The answer might be available in analyzing the ditiometer. It registers motion in the four dimensions of space time. When Nel reversed direction and accelerated away from Sam her ditiometer saw a vector change of motion and knowing the previous vector acceleration it began to calculate an increase in the passage of time and distance. This would continue until Nel got to Earth synched motion. If acceleration would have continued instead of stopping the clock would then start slowing down. Makes sense. This makes even more sense when you think about how Sam's clock would work when he gets to Farth. He would have to decelerate to stop at Farth just in the same amount as Nel had to decelerate to match Earth synch. Then when returning to Earth he would have to accelerate towards Earth, in the same direction of the force of deceleration he used to stop at Farth. Thus there is a simple symmetry when Sam and Nel view things from the way the ditiometer works and thus relativity appears perfectly non relative in 4D.

Sam and Nel now realize that popular books that protray relativity as total realtivity are wrong. These books often state that motion is totally relative and it does not matter if it was Earth and Farth that accelerated or Sam and Nel that accelerated. But if Earth and Farth had accelerated and decelerated it would have been their time that slowed and Sam and Nel that quickly aged. So obviously it really does matter who does the relative acceleration. Earth sees the ships as moving quickly and their time as passing slowly. Sam heading toward Farth would see the Earth begin to orbit the sun very slowly and Farth orbiting very rapidly. Earth would seem to get much farther away and orbit very slowly as Sam approached the speed of light while Farth would seem to get very close very quickly as space compresses in Sam's direction of motion. This makes sense because Sam must measure the speed of light coming from Earth as a constant so if Earth stretches farther away light has farther to go and the Doppler shift means light coming from Earth would hit Sam greatly stretched out. So Sam gets the same value for light speed. For instance if a photon before acceleration took 10 units of time to go 100 units of distance then after acceleration it now takes 100 units of time to go 1000 units of distance and the speed comes out the same. A similar result holds for space and time compression looking toward Farth.

More About Ditiometers

The odometer of an Auto generally just records distance. A piece of equipment like a bulldozer generally records hours instead of distance. This is because it may not move much but does a lot of work when running so hours is a much better rocord of wear and tear. For a car hours are not as usefull since a car is used mainly to get from point A to point B. In fact wear and tear on a car might be more accurately recorded as hours but hours tells little about business use and so forth. A Ditiometer that records accelerations and vector changes and angular accelerations might be a great improvement on realizing maintenance on a car. It could also record uphill and downhill motion and road bumps suffered. This information could then be used by the ditiometer to compute closely the

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Illustrating relativity by saying it does not matter if it was the object that accelerated or the entire universe that accelerated takes relativity too far. It seems to throw out the baby with the bath water in trying to emphasize the relativeness of relativty. For one thing you could never do this so it might be OK as a thought experiment but not as a real illustration of facts. Even Einstien tended to work with thought experiments in the realm of the eventually doable as an experiment.

It would take a large and unknown amount of energy to accelerate the entire universe. The amount of energy would be so great as to perhaps collapse the universe very quickly since the increase in energy would increase gravity as Energy is equivalent to mass.

Other illutrations say it does not matter if it was you or I that accelerated, the relativity math is the same. But if that is true than how do you account for the different aging of the travelling astronaut over the stay at home brother? Still other illustrations say that relative motion is totally relative when in fact that is never the case.

Here is another way some books confuse the issue. They state that a particle created by a cosmic ray can take longer to decay due to its relativistic speed so that it appears to observers on Earth that its mass is greater by some amount. They then state that it does not matter if you view the particle as moving fast or the laboratory as moving fast torward the particle, this being due to the symmetry of relativity. This can't be true for several reasons. For instance relativity states that time should pass slower for the fast moving particle than for the Laboratory. This has to be true since it was the cosmic ray that got accelrated to near light speed not the Earth. Also similar particles produced in the lab and moving at a slower speed decay faster. The particle should also not see the laboratory as having increased mass since time for the laboratory passes faster. When you invoke the equivalence between gravity and mass you can not get the same result if you neglect which item got initially accelerated. The perfect symmetry that writers constantly emphasize is not true. This is a holdover from Special Relativity theory which did not include acceleration and may not even be true for Special Relativity.

Writers also always emphasize that different observers will see distant events as occurring in a different order due to their relative positions in space. Once again confusion results because relativity gave us a way to calculate which event occured first at least in most instances this has to be true or the GPS system could not work. Any observer will be able to calculate in what order some distant observer has seen the same two distant events assuming they know the distances to the events and to the other observer. A way to determine such distances might be possible in the future. I could imagine a rotating pinhole parallax device that builds up a statistical lineup of photons to give an accurate distance. Astronomers calculate event orders but they have the advantage of great distances that register a red shift and they generally have no need to order astronomical events for most purposes of their work. When they do they generally are able to make a logical estimate of orders of events based on causality and several other effects.

Another confusion left over from early relativity is the idea that an observer can have no knowledge of place and motion in the universe. However modern quantum theory has more or less given us a new ether known as vacuum energy or virtual quantum activity. If this activity could be probed even by the tiniest amount we could possibly determine its relative velocity. In addition we now have the cosmic background radiation or CMB. An instrument that determines red shifts coming from opposite directions could easily produce a velocity with repect to the CMB, thought to be symmetrical around any given observer if the observer had zero velocity with respect to the CMB and hence to the large space environment surrounding their position. Thus a space traveler would have means to know or determine their absolute velocity in a very practical, useful manner given an instrument on board that can do this. Thus an accurate ditiometer is a real possibility.